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City History -Trichy

Trichirapalli

        The name Tiruchirapalli is popularly believed to derive from the Sanskrit "Trishirapuram"—'Trishira' meaning "three-headed" and 'palli' or 'puram' meaning "City". According to Hindu mythology, the town got its name from the three-headed demon Trishira who meditated on the Hindu godShiva near the present-day Tiruchirappalli and obtained favours at this place. However, this derivation is not universally accepted.
          Ancient religious references to Chirapalli Sivan temple comes from the devotional poetry called Thevarams written by Appar and Sambantharwhere they refer to Chirapalli by name. Sierra or ciarra means mountain range in Spanish (eg Sierra Leonne, Sierra Nevada etc.). Thiru is a Tamil prefix for holy. Palli means a gate where toll is collected.
          Other derivations of Tiruchirappalli have been provided by the Telugu scholar C. P. Brown who suggested that Tiruchirappalli might be a derivative of the word 'Chiruta-palli' meaning "little town". In a rock inscription of the sixteenth century, Tiruchirappalli is mentioned as Tiru-ssila-pallimeaning "holy-rock-town" in Tamil and Orientalists Henry Yule and Arthur Coke Burnell believed that the name Tiruchirappalli might have been derived from it. A few other scholars feel that the name Tiruchirappalli might have been derived from Tiru-chinna-palli meaning "holy little town".

CITY Overview:
          Tiruchirappalli also called as Trichinopoly in the records of British India, also called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a city in the Tamil nadu State which INDIAN Nation. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu and also the fourth largest Urban agglomeration in the state.
The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Early Cholas, Early Pandyas, Pallavas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Delhi Sultanate, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur which served as the capital of the Early Cholas is a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. Tiruchirappalli played a critical role in the Carnatic Wars between the British and the French East India companies. The city has a number of historical monuments, theRockfort, Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval being the most prominent among them.
          Tiruchirappalli is an important industrial and educational hub of central Tamil Nadu. The factories of Ordnance Factories Board such as Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli and Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) and Golden Rock Railway Workshops are located in Tiruchirappalli. The National Institutes of Technology (NIT), Indian Institute of Management, Bharathidasan University and Anna University of Technology have their campuses in the city. Tiruuchirappalli is internationally popular for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar which was exported in large quantities to the United Kingdom in the 19th century.
Tiruchirappalli is administered by a municipal corporation established as per the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Act 1994. The city covers an area of 146 square kilometres and had a population of 752,066 in 2001. Tiruchirappalli is well-connected by road, rail and air.

Geography and Climate:
          Tiruchirappalli is located at 10.8050°N 78.6856°E. The average elevation is 88 metres (289 ft). It is located almost at the geographic centre of the state of Tamil Nadu. The topology of Tiruchirappalli is almost flat with a few isolated hillocks rising above the surface, the highest of which is the Rockfort. The city spread over an area of 146.7 square kilometres (56.6 sq mi) is situated on the plains between theShevaroy Hills to the north and the Palni Hills to the south and south-west.  The city is situated at the head of the Kaveri Delta, which commences 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of Tiruchirappalli where the Kaveri River branches into two streams forming the island of Srirangam.
          The land immediately surrounding the Kaveri is made up of fertile alluvial soil deposited by the Kaveri and its tributary, the Kollidam. Further south, the surface is covered by poor-quality black soil. The alluvial soil is conducible for agriculture and crops such as ragi (finger millet) and cholam (maize) are cultivated. North-east of Tiruchirappalli runs a belt of cretaceous rock known as the "Trichinopoly Group". Layers of archaean rocks, granite and gneiss covered by a thin bed of conglomeratic lateriteare found to the south-east of the city.
          Densely-populated industrial and residential areas have recently emerged in the northern part of the city. Residential areas also cover the southern edge of the city. The city is completely surrounded by agricultural fields.  The older part of the city, situated within the fort, is unplanned and congested while the adjoining newer sections are better executed  Many of the old houses in Srirangam were constructed according to the shilpa sastras, the canonical texts of Hindu temple architecture. A Local Planning Authority for Tiruchirappalli was created on 5 April 1974 as per the Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act of 1971 with the District Collector of Tiruchirappalli as Chairman and the Assistant Director of Town and Country Planning as its member secretary. The city gets its drinking water supply from the Kaveri River and 1,470 bore wells linked to 60 service reservoirs in and around the city.
          Tiruchirappalli is hot and dry for at least eight months of the year. The hottest months are from March to July during which the city experiences frequent dust storms. During this period, the days are extremely warm and dry while evenings are rendered cooler due to the cold winds that blow from the south-east. Tiruchirappalli experiences a moderate climate from August to October, tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers, and cool and balmy climate from November to February. Fog and dew are rare and occur only during the winter season.

Population:
          According to the 2001 census, the Tiruchirappalli had a population of 752,066 within the corporation limits at a density of 5,127 persons per km2, with 376,125 men (50.01 per cent) and 375,941 women (49.99 per cent). The urban agglomeration had a population of 866,354. Tiruchirappalli metropolitan area constitutes the fourth largest metropolitan area in Tamil Nadu and the 47th in India. 11.41 per cent of the population was under six years of age. Tiruchirappalli had a literacy rate of 88.71 per cent. The provisional results of the 2011 India census released by the Government of India give the population of Tiruchirappalli metropolitan area as 846,915 and the urban agglomeration as 1,021,717. There are a total of 286 slums in Tiruchirappalli with a population of about 162,000.

Culture:
          A resident of Tiruchirappalli is generally referred to as a Tiruchiite. The city formed a part of the traditional Chola heartland and has a number of exquisitely sculpted temples and forts. Situated at the edge of the Kaveri Delta, the culture of Tiruchirappalli is similar to the Brahminical culture prevalent elsewhere in the delta. With a substantial population of students and migrant industrial workers from different parts of India, Tiruchirappalli has a more cosmopolitan outlook than the surrounding countryside. Tiruchirappalli is home to many Carnatic musicians and film artistes.

Festivals:
          Pongal, Tamil New Year, Aadi Perukku, Vaikunta Ekadasi, Navarathri, the Srirangam car festival and Bakrid are some of the important festivals celebrated in Tiruchirappalli. The Gregorian New Year, Christmas, Deepavali and Holi are also celebrated with pomp and splendour. Jallikattu tournaments are occasionally held on the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli city.

Temples:
          Tiruchirappalli has a number of historical Hindu temples and fortresses. Most of the Hindu temples, including the Rockfort temples, the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, theJambukeswarar Temple at Thiruvanaikkaval, the Samayapuram Mariamman Temple, the Erumbeeswarar Temple and the temples in Urayur, are built in the Dravidian style of architecture the Ranganathaswamy Temple and Jambukeswarar Temple often being counted among the best examples of this style. The Rockfort, considered to be one of the symbols of Tiruchirappalli, is a fortress which stands atop a 273 foot high rock. The Ranganathaswamy Temple, dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, is an important Vaishnavite pilgrimage center and is believed to house the mortal remains of the Vaishnavite saint and philosopher Ramanujacharya. The Jambukeswarar Temple at Thiruvanaikkaval and the Erumbeeswarar Temple both date from the time of the Medieval Cholas. The city's principal mosque is the Nadir Shah Mosque or Nathar Shah mosque which encloses the tomb of the 10th century Muslim saint Nadir Shah. The Christ Church, constructed by the German Protestant missionary Christian Friedrich Schwarz in 1766, and the St Joseph College Church, are noted examples of Gothic Revival architecture in the city.

Economy:
          During British rule, Tiruchirappalli was known for its tanneries, cigar-manufacturing units and oil presses. At its peak, over 12 million cigars were manufactured and exported annually. Tanned hides and skins from Tiruchirappalli were exported to the United Kingdom. The city has a number of retail and wholesale markets, the most famous among them being the Gandhi market which is an important source of vegetables for the whole region. Other notable markets in the city are the flower bazaar in Srirangam and the mango market at Mambazha Salai. The suburb of Manachanallur is known for rice mills where polished Ponni rice is produced.
          A weapon manufacturing unit, Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli manufactures products like grenade launchers, multi shell launchers, rifles for the Indian Armed Forces and a Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project (HAPP) facility are run by the Ordnance Factories Board of the Government of India. The HAPP unit, set up in the late 1980s, comprises a flexible manufacturing system (FMS), the first of its kind in India.
Tiruchirappalli is a major engineering equipment manufacturing hub in Tamil Nadu. The Golden Rock Locomotive Workshops, moved to Tiruchirappalli from Nagapattinam in 1928, is one of the three railway locomotive manufacturing units in Tamil Nadu. The workshops produced 650 conventional and low-container flat wagons during the year 2007–2008.The chief workshop manager's office at Golden Rock was awarded a star rating by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency for the proper and regulated usage of electricity in its offices.
          A high-pressure boiler manufacturing plant was set up by the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), India's largest public sector engineering company, in May 1965. This was followed by a seamless steel plant set up at a cost of  58 crore (US$13 million) and a boiler auxiliaries plant. The three manufacturing units constitute the BHEL industrial complex and cover a total area of about 22,927.4 square metres (246,788 sq ft). The plant can generate up to 6.2 MW of electricity using coal as a resource.
          Other important industries in Tiruchirappalli include the Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL) which was established at Senthaneerpuram in the then Golden Rock municipality in 1966 and the Trichy Steel Rolling Mills which was started as a private limited company on 27 June 1961. The Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited manufactures rectified spirit, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetic anhydride and ethyl acetate. It is one of the biggest private sector distilleries in Tamil Nadu and produced 13.5 million litres of spirit alcohol between December 2005 and November 2006.
The annual software exports of the Tiruchirappalli region amount to  26.21 crore (US$5.8 million).The ELCOT IT Park, the first IT park in the city has been commissioned at a cost of  60 crore (US$13.5 million) and inaugurated by the Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, M. K. Stalin on 9 December 2010. Set up by the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu, the park occupies an area of 59.74 hectares (147.6 acres) and constitutes a Special Economic Zone. The Indian software company Infosys, is planning to start its operations in Tiruchirappalli.

Transport:
By Road :
          Tiruchirappalli is well connected by road, rail and air with most cities and towns in India. The National Highways NH 45, NH 45B, NH 67, NH 210 and NH 227 pass through the city. Tiruchirappalli forms a part of the Division no. 1 of the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation which is headquartered at Kumbakonam.

By Railway :
          The Great Southern of India Railway Company was established in 1853 with its headquarters at Tiruchirappalli. In 1859, the company constructed its first railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli and Nagapattinam. Tiruchirappalli is an important railway junction in central Tamil Nadu and constitutes a separate division of theSouthern Railway. There are direct trains to Coimbatore, Chennai, Cuddalore, Erode, Karaikudi, Mayiladuthurai, Karaikal, Palakkad, Rameswaram, Thanjavur and Vriddhachalam.  Tiruchirappalli has rail connectivity with most important cities and towns in India.

By Air :
          Tiruchirappalli is served by the Tiruchirappalli Airport, which provides both domestic as well as international services. It was first used to handle air traffic in 1938, when Tata Airlines commercial flights stopped at Tiruchirappalli on the Karachi-Colombo route. In 1948, Air Ceylon commenced daily passenger flights between Tiruchirappalli and Colombo via Jaffna. There are regular flights to Chennai, Sri Lanka, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore.

Education:
          Even during British rule, Tiruchirappalli was recognised as an important educational centre in India. St. Joseph's College, opened in Nagapattinam in 1846 and transferred to Tiruchirappalli in 1883, is one of the oldest higher educational institutions in India. Holy Cross College for Women established in 1923 is one of the oldest colleges for women in the country. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) college, established in 1883, is another premium missionary institution in the city.
          Tiruchirappalli has a total of 27 arts, science and law colleges, notable ones being the National College, Bishop Heber College, Jamal Mohamed College and the Government Law College. There are nearly 35 engineering colleges in and around the city. The National Institutes of Technology have a campus at Thuvakudi on the outskirts of the city. The Tiruchirappalli branch of Anna University was established following the bifurcation of Anna University in 2007. A total of 64 self-financing colleges offering courses on engineering, architecture, management and computer applications in the districts of Ariyalur, Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur and Tiruvarur are affiliated to this University. The SRM Group of Colleges established the SRM Institute of Science and Technology at Irungalur near Tiruchirappalli followed by Chennai Medical College and Hospital in 2007. A proposal by the group to include the institutions in the SRM University is under review of the Ministry of Human Resources Development of the Government of India.
          The Bharathidasan University is based in Tiruchirappalli and exercises its jurisdiction over colleges in Tiruchirappalli district and seven neighbouring ones. The university runs a management school, the Bharathidasan Institute of Management in Tiruchirappalli in collaboration with BHEL.           The Government of India's Ministry for Human Resources Development (HRD) approved a proposal for the setting up of a campus of the Indian Institute of Management in Tiruchirappalli and the campus started functioning from the 2011–12 academic season.
          There are a total of 100 government and private schools in Tiruchirappalli. Campion Anglo-Indian Higher Secondary School, St Joseph's Anglo Indian Girls Higher Secondary School, RSK Higher Secondary School, are some of the notable schools in the city.

Media:
          According to the Registrar of newspapers in India, a total of 111 newspapers have been registered in Tiruchirappalli. The weekly newspaper Wednesday Review, founded in 1905, is the first prominent journal to be published from Tiruchirappalli. Among the major English-language newspapers being published from Tiruchirappalli are The Hindu which launched a Tiruchirappalli edition in 2004 and The New Indian Express which was publishing from Tiruchirappalli even before The Hindu. Some of the important Tamil-language newspapers that publish a Tiruchirappalli edition are Dina Thanthi Dina Mani, Dina Malar, Malai Malar, Dinakaran, Tamil Murasu and Tamil Sudar. Popular Tamil weekly Ananda Vikatan launched a local supplement for Tiruchirappalli on the occasion of the 85th anniversary of its founding.
          The first radio transmission station in Tiruchirappalli was opened by the All India Radio (AIR) on 16 May 1939. AIR started providing direct-to-home enabled radio broadcasting service from 2006. In 2007, the AIR launched a separate Carnatic music channel – Ragam from Tiruchirappalli. Apart from the government-owned AIR, private radio channels as Hello FM (106.4) and Suryan FM (93.5) also operate FM stations in Tiruchirappalli. Indira Gandhi National Open University's Gyan Vani started broadcasting from Tiruchirappalli in 2008. Tiruchirappalli's first campus community radio was started by Holy Cross College on 22 December 2006.
          Television broadcasting from Chennai was started on 15 August 1975. Satellite television channels have been available from 1991 onwards. Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus  and Sun Direct DTH.

Utility services:
          Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). Tiruchirappalli is the headquarters of the Trichy region of TNEB. The city along with its suburbs forms the Trichy Metro Electricity Distribution Circle which is further sub-divided into six divisions. A Chief Distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters at Tennur. Water supply is provided by the Tiruchirappalli City Corporation. Of the six headworks from which the city gets its water supply, four are maintained by the municipal corporation and the rest by other agencies. Apart from the Gandhi market, Central Bus terminus and the Chathram bus terminus, solid waste management in the city is handled by the corporation.  About 400 tonnes of solid waste are released from city every year. The principal landfill is at Ariyamangalam. Recently, the Tiruchirappalli city corporation has gone in for scientific closure of the garbage dump and its replacement with a sewerage treatment plant. Waste water management in the Trichy-Srirangam under ground drainage (UGD) areas are handled by the Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD) and in other areas by the Tiruchirappalli Municipal Corporation. The high toxicity of the waste water released by the Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL) is a major cause of concern for the corporation. The corporation's annual expenditure for the year 2010–11 is estimated to be Rs. 155.94 crores. Under the National Urban Sanitation Policy, Tiruchirappalli, with a sanitation coverage of 70 percent was ranked sixth in India and first in Tamil Nadu on the basis of sanitation for the year 2009–10. In January 2010, Tiruchirappalli became the first city in India where open defecation was prevented in all its slums.
          Tiruchirappalli comes under the Tiruchi Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. There are a total of about 20,000 business telephone subscribers in the city. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service. BSNL began offering wireless internet services with the commencement of Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO) transmission in 2008. Tiruchirappalli is one of the few cities in India where BSNL's Caller Line Identification (CLI) based internet service Netone is available. Softnet (STPI), Tata VSNL, Bharti and Reliance are other major broadband internet service providers in the city.
          Tiruchirappalli has a passport office which commenced its operations on 23 March 1983. Apart from Tiruchirappalli, it also caters to the needs of seven adjacent districts namely, Karur, Nagappattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Ariyalur and Tiruvarur.

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